Article name Liberal Socio-Political Reforms of Alexander II: Causes, Essence, Nature
Authors Mezentsev S.. ,
Matyukhin A. . doctor of political sciences,
Bibliographic description Mezentsev S. D., Matyukhin A. V. Liberal socio-political reforms of Alexander II: causes, essence, nature // Transbaikal State University Journal. 2023. Vol. 29, no. 4. P. 150–160. DOI: 10.2109/2227-9245-2023-29-4- 150-160.
Category Politology
DOI 32:94 (470+571)
DOI 10.2109/2227-9245-2023-29-4-150-160
Article type Original article
Annotation The article examines the socio-political reforms carried out by Alexander II in the 60–70s. of the 19th century The relevance of this topic is due to the fact that the prevailing in 1859–1861 the revolutionary situation forced the emperor to carry out reforms “from above” to avoid the revolution “from below”. The ruling class did not seek to preserve its privileges in integrity and eventually agreed to go for reforms. The object of the study is the socio-political reforms of Alexander II, the subject is the liberal nature of the reforms. The purpose of the article is to reveal the essence of bourgeois reforms, to reveal the degree of their compliance with the laws of dialectics and the logic of the world-historical process. Research objectives are as follows: 1) to reveal the main content of the socio-political reforms of the 60–70s 19th century; 2) determine the role and significance of socio-political reforms in Russian transition to the capitalist path of development. The authors have used the dialectical method in materialistic and idealistic interpretations and such general scientific methods as analysis, synthesis, generalization, abstraction, deduction and induction. The main reasons for the reforms were the lack of civil and political freedoms, increased exploitation of the peasants by the landowners, the growth of class struggle in the form of peasant uprisings, including in the national outskirts, and the defeat in the Crimean War (1853–1856). Changes in the basis led to transformations in the superstructure of Russian society: restructuring of the state apparatus, introduction of a classless court, modernization of local self-government, reform of the army, and so on. If social being dictated the need for changes in social consciousness and transformed it, then the transformed social consciousness had a reverse effect on social being and, in turn, reshaped it. Despite the inconsistency and half-heartedness of the liberal reforms, they contributed to Russian transition from feudalism to capitalism, laid the foundations of a right-wing state and civil society, and created the prerequisites for the future struggle for social justice and a socialist state.
Key words Alexander II, liberalism,freedom, bourgeoisie, nobles,reform, abolition of serfdom,judicial reform, local selfgovernmentreform, militaryreform, dialectics, social life,public consciousness
Article information
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