Article name The Transformation of Terrorism Concerning the Definition of New Types: Diplomatic Terrorism in Relation to Russia and China
Authors Bukreeva T.N. senior lecturer,
Bibliographic description Bukreeva T. N. The transformation of terrorism concerning the definition of new types: diplomatic terrorism in relation to Russia and China // Transbaikal State University Journal. 2023. Vol. 29, no. 3. P. 176–186. DOI: 10.2109/2227-9245-2023-29-3-176-186.
Category Politology
DOI 327.82
DOI 10.2109/2227-9245-2023-29-3-176-186
Article type Original article
Annotation In the 21st century, terrorism acquired new features; the number of parties involved in terrorist activities has grown. It has become more complicated to analyse the phenomenon itself and the synthesis of factors necessary for its study. As a result, such new types of terrorism as informational, economic, and technological have appeared. At present, the contours of diplomatic terrorism are becoming more distinct. The object of the study is the main types of terrorism, the origin of which has connections with the progress of mass communication. The subject of the study is the transformation of terrorism in the direction of revealing new implicit types of terrorism. The purpose of the study is to highlight diplomatic terrorism as a result of terrorism transformation in the 21st century. The author has identified the following tasks: to introduce information agendas that form a negative image of Russia and China in the context of terrorist issues; to present specific examples of terrorist attacks against Russia and China; to identify the features of diplomatic terrorism as a tool in the foreign policy struggle against unwelcome countries. The research methodology is based on general scientific and applied research methods, including analysis, synthesis, deduction and induction. The author analyses the facts of accusing Russia and China of complicity in terrorism by the United States, India and other countries, notes the tendency for a number of states, in particular the United States and its allies, to use terrorist methods in order to realize their own interests, pays attention to relevant examples of terrorist acts using methods of the technological and economic impact. The author has distinguished diplomacy used by government officials as a tool of pressure on other states and international organisations. As a result, it is proposed to consider diplomatic terrorism as a separate type of terrorist activity, and the research has determined the characteristic features of this type of terrorism.
Key words terrorism, subject of terrorism, diplomacy, terrorist state, diplomatic terrorism, reputational loss, Russia, China, Taiwan, Ukraine
Article information
References 1. Underwood L. J. The Root of All Evil? Religious Perspectives on Terrorism. Kharkov: Humanitarian Center Publ., 2021. (In Rus.). 2. Artamonov A. G. Inhumans. Modern masters of the world against Russia. Moscow: Kontseptual Publ., 2022. (In Rus.). 3. Vozzhenikov A. V. International terrorism: struggle for geopolitical dominance. Moscow: RAGS Publ., 2005. (In Rus.). 4. Glotov E. N., Sharifullina L. R., Kozyreva A. A. Chemical terrorism in social and political conflicts. Scientific and educational tasks of civil defence, no. 2, pp. 47–52, 2014. Web.14.12.2022. https://cyberleninka. ru/article/n/himicheskiy-terrorizm-v-sotsialno-politicheskih-konfliktah. (In Rus.). 5. Grishin O. E., Sokolova A. E. Formation of reputational capital of the state: innovative informationcommunication technologies. PolitBook, no. 2, pp. 106–115, 2013. Web. 10.01.2023. https://cyberleninka. ru/article/n/formirovanie-reputatsionnogo-kapitala-gosudarstva-innovatsionnye-informatsionnokommunikatsionnye-tehnologii. (In Rus.). 6. China has blocked the proposal of India and the United States to the UN Security Council on the issue of international terrorists. Web. 25.12.2022. (In Rus.). 7. Mikhailov A. E. Problems of understanding international terrorism: general theoretical aspect. Moscow: Prometei Publ., 2019. (In Rus.). 8. Petrovsky V. Beijing, Washington and the «first red line». Web. 15.12.2022. show/38007. (In Rus.). 9. Sidorov B. V. Novelties in definition of terrorism, international terrorism and acts of international terrorism and problems of improving Russian criminal legislation. The Review of Economy, the Law and Sociology, no. 2, pp. 115–121, 2017. Web.16.11.2022. (In Rus.). 10. Sharapov A. K. Destructive orientation of the dominant functions of terrorism in the geopolitical process. Bulletin of the Transbaikal State University, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 123–133, 2017. Web.16.11.2022. (In Rus.). 11. Banerjee R. China might have orchestrated Myanmar coup to push drugs, arms, terrorists into northeast Web. 23.10.2022. (In Eng.). 12. China wants to revive Pakistan-based terror group Al–Badr. Web. 15.12.2022. china-wants-to-revive-pakistan-based-terror-group-al-badr/india/news/2062254.html. (In Eng.). 13. Claims that China paid Bin Laden to see cruise missiles. Web.12.01.2023. https://www.theguardian. com/world/2001/oct/20/china.afghanistan. (In Eng.). 14. Nancy Pelosi visits Taiwan: Highlights from her speech. Web. 20.12.2022. world/nancy-pelosi-visits-taiwan-highlights-from-her-speech-14351982.htm. (In Eng.). 15. National Security Strategy. Web. 20.10.2022. 2022/10/Biden-Harris-Administrations-National-Security-Strategy-10.2022.pdf (In Eng.). 16. Reeves J. R. A New Typology for State-Sponsored International Terrorism.Web. 20.11.2022. https:// (In Eng.)/ 17. Rej A. Why did China change its position now on listing JeM chief Masood Azhar at the Security Council? Web. 02.12.2022. (In Eng.). 18. State Sponsors of Terrorism. Web. 10.12.2022. (In Eng.). 19. The United States pressured the Netherlands to ban the sale of lithography machines to China. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Typical technological terrorism! Web. 27.01.2023. htts:// com/a/564530185_180220. (In Chin.). 20. Zhang Jinping. Contemporary Terrorism and Counter-terrorism Strategy. Beijing: Shishi Chubanshe Publ., 2019. (In Chin.).
Full articleThe Transformation of Terrorism Concerning the Definition of New Types: Diplomatic Terrorism in Relation to Russia and China